Some areas of the conquered world were more affected by Greek influences than others. In 310 BC, Cassander had young King Alexander IV and his mother Roxana murdered, ending the Argead Dynasty which had ruled Macedon for several centuries. 250 BC), a student of Herophilos, a new medical sect emerged, the Empiric school, which was based on strict observation and rejected unseen causes of the Dogmatic school. Epirus was an ally of Macedon during the reigns of Philip II and Alexander. This distinction is remarked upon in William M. Ramsay (revised by Mark W. Wilson). His edicts appear carved on rocks and a number of free-standing pillars which are found right across India. Whatever the case, tensions between pro- and anti-Seleucid Jewish factions led to the 174–135 BC Maccabean Revolt of Judas Maccabeus (whose victory is celebrated in the Jewish festival of Hanukkah).  Promotion of immigration from Greece was important in the establishment of this system. They enjoyed Greek theater, and Greek art influenced Parthian art. After the infantry stormed the palace of Babylon, a compromise was arranged – Arrhidaeus (as Philip III) should become king and should rule jointly with Roxana's child, assuming that it was a boy (as it was, becoming Alexander IV). 173-179. The Hellenistic period lasted three hundred years and is characterized by innovation, globalization and cultural connectivity through a common language and standardized education. It was created during an age characterized by a strong sense of history. The last Hasmonean ruler, Antigonus II Mattathias, was captured by Herod and executed in 37 BC. This Roman-Greek interaction began as a consequence of the Greek city-states located along the coast of southern Italy. Despite being ruled by a dynasty which was a descendant of the Persian Achaemenid Empire it became hellenized due to the influence of the Greek cities on the Black Sea and its neighboring kingdoms. Bugh, Glenn R. (editor). Seleucus, however, held on to a damaged Babylon and the eastern provinces, except for India, which he had to yield to the Indian king Chandragupta. The kingdoms became so independent from Seleucid control that Antiochus III the Great waged war on them during his reign and replaced their rulers. emotional intensity. For the first time, there were museums and great libraries, such as those at Alexandria and Pergamon (1972.118.95). The term Hellenistic literally to 'imitate Greeks', and the Hellenistic period refers to the time period beginning with the life and death of Alexander the Great and ending in 323 B.C.E. Carthaginian culture came into contact with the Greeks through Punic colonies in Sicily and through their widespread Mediterranean trade network. Having existed even before temples, Beign simple slabs in the beginning, Becoming larger and more widespread during the Hellenistic period. During a decade of campaigning, Alexander conquered the whole Persian Empire, overthrowing the Persian king Darius III. A Brief History of Ancient Greece: Politics, Society, and Culture. Its capital was the city of Petra, an important trading city on the incense route. The spread of Christianity throughout the Roman world, followed by the spread of Islam, ushered in the end of Hellenistic philosophy and the beginnings of Medieval philosophy (often forcefully, as under Justinian I), which was dominated by the three Abrahamic traditions: Jewish philosophy, Christian philosophy, and early Islamic philosophy. Stanley M. Burstein, Walter Donlan, Jennifer Tolbert Roberts, and Sarah B. Pomeroy. After Cassander's death in c. 298 BC, however, Demetrius, who still maintained a sizable loyal army and fleet, invaded Macedon, seized the Macedonian throne (294 BC) and conquered Thessaly and most of central Greece (293–291 BC). Select text and press Ctrl+Enter. Hellenistic monarchs ran their kingdoms as royal estates and most of the heavy tax revenues went into the military and paramilitary forces which preserved their rule from any kind of revolution.  Famously, the end of Ptolemaic Egypt came as the final act in the republican civil war between the Roman triumvirs Mark Anthony and Augustus Caesar. Read more about Hellenistic Period: Hellenistic Golden Age , The Period and Its Problems , Historians and The Hellenistic Period , Background , The Macedonian Empire , The Successors , The Ptolemaic Kingdom , The Seleucid Empire , Rise of Rome Greek science was advanced by the works of the mathematician Euclid and the polymath Archimedes. Astrology was widely associated with the cult of Tyche (luck, fortune), which grew in popularity during this period. It was against this backdrop that the ascendancy of Macedon began, under king Philip II. The soldiers discounted Eumenes of Cardia, who bore the main responsibility for civil administration, but he knew more about the empire than anyone else.  At the height of its power, it included central Anatolia, the Levant, Mesopotamia, Persia, today's Turkmenistan, Pamir, and parts of Pakistan. The west Balkan coast was inhabited by various Illyrian tribes and kingdoms such as the kingdom of the Dalmatae and of the Ardiaei, who often engaged in piracy under Queen Teuta (reigned 231–227 BC). Lesser supplementary sources include Curtius Rufus, Pausanias, Pliny, and the Byzantine encyclopedia the Suda. They retained their independence by the maintenance of a powerful navy, by maintaining a carefully neutral posture and acting to preserve the balance of power between the major Hellenistic kingdoms.. The religious sphere expanded to include new gods such as the Greco-Egyptian Serapis, eastern deities such as Attis and Cybele and a syncretism between Hellenistic culture and Buddhism in Bactria and Northwest India. Scholars and historians are divided as to which event signals the end of the Hellenistic era. All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name Ptolemy.  After Demetrius Poliorcetes captured Athens in 307 BC and restored the democracy, the Athenians honored him and his father Antigonus by placing gold statues of them on the agora and granting them the title of king. Michael Rostovtzeff, who fled the Russian Revolution, concentrated predominantly on the rise of the capitalist bourgeoisie in areas of Greek rule. Antigonus fled for Greece, and then, together with Antipater and Craterus (the satrap of Cilicia who had been in Greece fighting the Lamian war) invaded Anatolia. For some purposes the period is extended for a further three and a half centuries, to the move by Constantine the Great of his capital to Constantinople (Byzantium) in 330 ce. The Hellenistic period (roughly the last three centuries BCE) is characterized by an avid interest in magic, though this may simply be because from this period a greater abundance of texts, both literary and some from actual practitioners, in Greek and in Latin remains. The Parthians continued worshipping Greek gods syncretized together with Iranian deities. For geographical distribution of Greek speakers, see. During the course of this war Roman troops moved into Asia for the first time, where they defeated Antiochus again at the Battle of Magnesia (190 BC). After Alexander's death in 323 BC, the influx of Greek colonists into the new realms continued to spread Greek culture into Asia. The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 6: The Fourth Century BC by D. M. Lewis (Editor), John Boardman (Editor), Simon Hornblower (Editor), M. Ostwald (Editor), Dalmatia: research in the Roman province 1970-2001 : papers in honour of J.J by David Davison, Vincent L. Gaffney, J. J. Wilkes, Emilio Marin, 2006, page 21, "...completely Hellenised town...". He fell ill, however, and surrendered to Seleucus, who gave him every opportunity to drink himself to death. Rome now demanded that the Achaean League, the last stronghold of Greek independence, be dissolved. The depictions of the Buddha appear to have been influenced by Greek culture: Buddha representations in the Ghandara period often showed Buddha under the protection of Herakles. His son, Herod Archelaus, ruled from 4 BC to AD 6 when he was deposed for the formation of Roman Judea. Demetrius fled to central Greece with his mercenaries and began to build support there and in the northern Peloponnese. Challenges to the Hellenistic kingdoms appeared from internal conflict and new external enemies. Like most Roman peace treaties of the period, the resultant 'Peace of Flaminius' was designed utterly to crush the power of the defeated party; a massive indemnity was levied, Philip's fleet was surrendered to Rome, and Macedon was effectively returned to its ancient boundaries, losing influence over the city-states of southern Greece, and land in Thrace and Asia Minor.  Antiochus IV Epiphanes sacked Jerusalem and looted the Temple in 169 BC after disturbances in Judea during his abortive invasion of Egypt. This period also saw the first written works of art history in the histories of Duris of Samos and Xenocrates of Athens, a sculptor and a historian of sculpture and painting. a huge empire led by Rome that stretched from Europe into Africa and Asia. This varied greatly by location. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? The Parthians used Greek as well as their own Parthian language (though lesser than Greek) as languages of administration and also used Greek drachmas as coinage. By the time of Mithridates VI Eupator, Greek was the official language of the kingdom, though Anatolian languages continued to be spoken. military campaigns that helped create one of the largest empires in history. Under the Seleucids, Parthia was governed by various Greek satraps such as Nicanor and Philip. Hellenistic art preserved only a few of the superior qualities of the art of the Greeks. He was elected Hegemon of the league, and a campaign against the Achaemenid Empire of Persia was planned. The rebels were supported by Lysimachus, the satrap of Thrace and Ptolemy, the satrap of Egypt. With the support of royal stipends, Alexandrian scholars collected, translated, copied, classified, and critiqued every book they could find. Although Eumenes, satrap of Cappadocia, defeated the rebels in Asia Minor, Perdiccas himself was murdered by his own generals Peithon, Seleucus, and Antigenes (possibly with Ptolemy's aid) during his invasion of Egypt (c. 21 May to 19 June, 320 BC). Prag & Quinn (editors). By Maria Dragatakis July 12, 2020 Thus, in less than twenty years, Rome had destroyed the power of one of the successor states, crippled another, and firmly entrenched its influence over Greece. Mithridates was finally defeated by Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great) in 65 BC.  Traders from Massalia ventured inland deep into France on the Rivers Durance and Rhône, and established overland trade routes deep into Gaul, and to Switzerland and Burgundy. Greeks continued being an important part of the cultural world of India for generations. An example that shows the spread of Greek theater is Plutarch's story of the death of Crassus, in which his head was taken to the Parthian court and used as a prop in a performance of The Bacchae. Antigonus then sent his son Demetrius to regain control of Greece. Most of the native population was not Hellenized, had little access to Greek culture and often found themselves discriminated against by their Hellenic overlords. Demetrius now turned his attention to Ptolemy, defeating his fleet at the Battle of Salamis and taking control of Cyprus. Blood still counted: the only male relative, a mentally impaired, illegitimate son of Philip, was proclaimed king as Philip III Arrhidaeus (c. 358–317), together with Rhoxane’s son Alexander IV (323–310), born after his father’s death in August; both were mere figureheads. The coins minted in Massalia have been found in all parts of Liguro-Celtic Gaul. After being defeated by Ptolemy IV's forces at Raphia (217 BC), Antiochus III led a long campaign to the east to subdue the far eastern breakaway provinces (212–205 BC) including Bactria, Parthia, Ariana, Sogdiana, Gedrosia and Drangiana. Eumenes, allied with Polyperchon, challenged Antigonus and secured Babylon, but he was betrayed and killed in 316.  Gymnasiums and their Greek education, for example, were for Greeks only. Settlements such as Ai-Khanoum, on trade routes, allowed Greek culture to mix and spread. Cleopatra, the wife of Tigranes the Great, invited Greeks such as the rhetor Amphicrates and the historian Metrodorus of Scepsis to the Armenian court, and—according to Plutarch—when the Roman general Lucullus seized the Armenian capital, Tigranocerta, he found a troupe of Greek actors who had arrived to perform plays for Tigranes. Like the Ptolemies, Antiochus I established a dynastic religious cult, deifying his father Seleucus I. Seleucus, officially said to be descended from Apollo, had his own priests and monthly sacrifices. Cynics such as Diogenes of Sinope rejected all material possessions and social conventions (nomos) as unnatural and useless. As the Greek and Levantine cultures mingled, the development of a hybrid Hellenistic culture began, and persisted even when isolated from the main centres of Greek culture (for instance, in the Greco-Bactrian kingdom). A pretext for war was provided by Philip's refusal to end his war with Attalid Pergamum and Rhodes, both Roman allies. In the Indo-Greek kingdom we find kings who were converts to Buddhism (e.g., Menander). The Cyrenaics and Epicureans embraced hedonism, arguing that pleasure was the only true good. Ptolemy invaded Syria and defeated Antigonus' son, Demetrius Poliorcetes, in the Battle of Gaza of 312 BC which allowed Seleucus to secure control of Babylonia, and the eastern satrapies. However, local cultures were not replaced, and mostly went on as before, but now with a new Greco-Macedonian or otherwise Hellenized elite. Sparta's bid for supremacy was crushed at the Battle of Sellasia (222 BC) by the Achaean league and Macedon, who restored the power of the ephors. Olympias, Alexander the Great’s terrible mother, had eliminated Philip III.  The worship of Alexander was also popular, as in the long lived cult at Erythrae and of course, at Alexandria, where his tomb was located. Professor, Dean, and Director of Studies in Arts, The Open University, Milton Keynes, England, 1969–79. the Hellenistic Period is characterized by a split Of Alexander's former empire, with endless wars between the Diadochi and their successors. In place of the humanism, balance, and restraint which had characterized the architecture and sculpture of the Golden Age, qualities of exaggerated realism, sensationalism, and voluptuousness now became dominant. The Hellenic period was the period that watched the invention of philosophy. Question: "What is Hellenism, and how did it influence the early church?" The kingdom of Colchis, which later became a Roman client state, received Hellenistic influences from the Black Sea Greek colonies. This occupation with the inner life, with personal inner liberty and with the pursuit of eudaimonia is what all Hellenistic philosophical schools have in common.. After the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), Greece had fallen under a Spartan hegemony, in which Sparta was pre-eminent but not all-powerful. Hellenism or at least Philhellenism reached most regions on the frontiers of the Hellenistic kingdoms.  Emporion contained a mixed population of Greek colonists and Iberian natives, and although Livy and Strabo assert that they lived in different quarters, these two groups were eventually integrated. The Mahabharata compliments them as "the all-knowing Yavanas" (sarvajñā yavanā); e.g., "The Yavanas, O king, are all-knowing; the Suras are particularly so. In this political climate, Hellenistic philosophers went in search of goals such as ataraxia (un-disturbedness), autarky (self-sufficiency), and apatheia (freedom from suffering), which would allow them to wrest well-being or eudaimonia out of the most difficult turns of fortune. The Ptolemaic Tessarakonteres was the largest ship constructed in Antiquity. The Hellenistic period may be seen to end either with the final conquest of the Greek heartlands by Rome in 146 BC following the Achaean War, with the final defeat of the Ptolemaic Kingdom at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, or even the move by Roman emperor Constantine the Great of the capital of the Roman Empire to Constantinople in AD 330. The motif of deceptively realistic naturalism in art (aletheia) is reflected in stories such as that of the painter Zeuxis, who was said to have painted grapes that seemed so real that birds came and pecked at them. New Comedy, the style of comic drama during the Hellenistic period, was characterized by: gently satirical scenes from middle-class life This philosophy denounced all religions and governments; shunned physical comfort; and taught that if one wanted nothing, then one could not lack anything: The Bosporan Kingdom was a multi-ethnic kingdom of Greek city states and local tribal peoples such as the Maeotians, Thracians, Crimean Scythians and Cimmerians under the Spartocid dynasty (438–110 BC). New Comedy, the style of comic drama during the Hellenistic period, was characterized by: gently satirical scenes from middle-class life This philosophy denounced all religions and governments; shunned physical comfort; and taught that if one wanted nothing, then one could not lack anything: The Hellenistic Period is the historical period that starts with the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and ends with the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire. a huge empire led by Rome that stretched from Europe into Africa and Asia. Many Greek cities, including Athens, overthrew their Roman puppet rulers and joined him in the Mithridatic wars. For some purposes the period is extended for a further three and a half centuries, to the move by Constantine the Great of his capital to Constantinople (Byzantium) in 330 ce . In spite of the Ptolemaic monies and fleets backing their endeavors, Athens and Sparta were defeated by Antigonus II during the Chremonidean War (267–261 BC). The Odrysian Kingdom of Thrace: Orpheus Unmasked (Oxford Monographs on Classical Archaeology) by Z. H. Archibald,1998. Editions Errance, Paris, 2008, p. 299. The Epicureans and the Cynics eschewed public offices and civic service, which amounted to a rejection of the polis itself, the defining institution of the Greek world. We leave the Classical Age in 338 when Philip of Macedonia completes his conquering of Greece (or 423, when his son, Alexander dies, depending on interpretation) and we enter into the Hellenistic Age, characterized by monarchies and NO emphasis on balance and restraint. Illyrians imported weapons and armor from the ancient Greeks (such as the Illyrian type helmet, originally a Greek type) and also adopted the ornamentation of ancient Macedon on their shields and their war belts (a single one has been found, dated 3rd century BC at modern Selce e Poshtme, a part of Macedon at the time under Philip V of Macedon). Not just in one field, but in everything they set their minds to...As subjects of a tyrant, what had they accomplished?...Held down like slaves they had shirked and slacked; once they had won their freedom, not a citizen but he could feel like he was labouring for himself". Perdiccas himself would become regent (epimeletes) of the empire, and Meleager his lieutenant. He was quickly hailed as king of Macedon and went on to rule for 35 years.. Between 255 and 246 BC, the governor of Bactria, Sogdiana and Margiana (most of present-day Afghanistan), one Diodotus, took this process to its logical extreme and declared himself king. One example is Athens, which had been decisively defeated by Antipater in the Lamian war (323–322 BC) and had its port in the Piraeus garrisoned by Macedonian troops who supported a conservative oligarchy. In 191 BC, the Romans under Manius Acilius Glabrio routed him at Thermopylae and obliged him to withdraw to Asia. This approach was bitterly resented by the Macedonians and discarded by most of the Diadochi after Alexander's death. In 233 BC the Aeacid royal family was deposed and a federal state was set up called the Epirote League. The Hellenistic period (4th - 1st century BC) is a period in the history of the allowed the flourishing of native culture and religion, it mixed with Greek culture. The most important source after Polybius is Diodorus Siculus who wrote his Bibliotheca historica between 60 and 30 BC and reproduced some important earlier sources such as Hieronymus, but his account of the Hellenistic period breaks off after the battle of Ipsus (301 BC). Many cities maintained nominal autonomy while under the rule of the local king or satrap, and often had Greek-style institutions. The city of Emporion (modern Empúries), originally founded by Archaic-period settlers from Phocaea and Massalia in the 6th century BC near the village of Sant Martí d'Empúries (located on an offshore island that forms part of L'Escala, Catalonia, Spain), was reestablished in the 5th century BC with a new city (neapolis) on the Iberian mainland. Nevertheless, Roman rule at least brought an end to warfare, and cities such as Athens, Corinth, Thessaloniki and Patras soon recovered their prosperity. Athens, with its multiple philosophical schools, continued to remain the center of philosophical thought. In spite of originally being a revolt against Greek overlordship, the Hasmonean kingdom and also the Herodian kingdom which followed gradually became more and more hellenized. Under Antiochus I (c. 324/323 – 261 BC), however, the unwieldy empire was already beginning to shed territories. In 307 BC he took Athens, expelling Demetrius of Phaleron, Cassander's governor, and proclaiming the city free again. After the Seleucid defeat at the Battle of Magnesia in 190 BC, the kings of Sophene and Greater Armenia revolted and declared their independence, with Artaxias becoming the first king of the Artaxiad dynasty of Armenia in 188 BC. These generals became known as the Diadochi (Greek: Διάδοχοι, Diadokhoi, meaning "Successors"). Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Hellenistic artists copied and adapted earlier Trouble in Greece, led by the Athenians and aimed at liberating the cities from Macedonian garrisons, was tougher to control. Rome eventually turned on Rhodes and annexed the island as a Roman province. Art of the Hellenistic Age and the Hellenistic Tradition. Hellenistic culture produced seats of learning throughout the Mediterranean. Hellenistic art is richly diverse in subject matter and in stylistic development. Question: "What is Hellenism, and how did it influence the early church?" It was not until the reign of Phraates I (c. 176–171 BC), that the Arsacids would again begin to assert their independence.. For some purposes the period is extended for a further three and a half centuries, to the move by Constantine the Great of his The Hellenistic period was characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization which established Greek cities and kingdoms in Asia and Africa. The Peloponnesian War: A Military Study (Warfare and History) by J. F. Lazenby,2003, page 224,"... number of strongholds, and he made himself useful fighting 'the Thracians without a king' on behalf of the more Hellenized Thracian kings and their Greek neighbours (Nepos, Alc. After initial successes, he was forced to surrender to Seleucus in 285 BC and later died in captivity. A city established by Alexander which became the center for the production of parchment, textiles, linens, oil, metalwork, and glass during the Hellenistic Period; the city also boasted of the Pharos, the largest lighthouse and one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, and the largest library of the ancient world. Antigonus II ruled until his death in 239 BC. Sparta refused to participate, as did the islands, but a coalition of Athens with Árgos, Sicyon, Elis, and Messenia, supported by Boeotians, Aetolians, and Thessalians, was a formidable challenge to Antipater’s authority. THE CAMBRIDGE ANCIENT HISTORY, SECOND EDITION, VOLUME VII, PART I: The Hellenistic World, p. 1.  Angelos Chaniotis ends the Hellenistic period with the death of Hadrian in 138 AD, who integrated the Greeks fully into the Roman Empire; and a range from c. 321 BC to 256 AD may also be given.. Seleucus defeated and killed Lysimachus, and Alexander’s empire, except for Egypt, seemed to be his for the asking. After the fall of the Seleucid dynasty, the Parthians fought frequently against neighbouring Rome in the Roman–Parthian Wars (66 BC – AD 217). Reliefs on the monument also show the Numidians had adopted Greco-Macedonian type armor and shields for their soldiers.. The dangers posed by the invading Celts led, in 279, to a treaty between Antigonus and Antiochus, who agreed not to interfere in one another’s spheres of influence. In addition, much of the area conquered would continue to be ruled by the Diadochi, Alexander's generals and successors. Magic in the Hellenistic period. The preservation of many classical and archaic works of art and literature (including the works of the three great classical tragedians, Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides) are due to the efforts of the Hellenistic Greeks. 323-31 BC. Under Ariarathes IV, Cappadocia came into relations with Rome, first as a foe espousing the cause of Antiochus the Great, then as an ally against Perseus of Macedon and finally in a war against the Seleucids. Undoubtedly Greek influence did spread through the Hellenistic realms, but to what extent, and whether this was a deliberate policy or mere cultural diffusion, have been hotly debated. This period also saw the rise of a Hellenistic Judaism, which first developed in the Jewish diaspora of Alexandria and Antioch, and then spread to Judea. He had been a student of Callimachus and later became chief librarian (prostates) of the library of Alexandria. In artistic terms this means that there is huge variety which is often put under the heading of "Hellenistic Art" for convenience.  A parallel can be drawn with the productivity of the city states of Italy during the Renaissance, and their subsequent decline under autocratic rulers. 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